Except where noted, these are my abstracts and transcripts of the original records
Thomas Hooper first appears in Lancaster County then moved upriver to Richmond County where he married, then on to Stafford County.
Both Stafford County and its successor Prince William County (created in 1727 from western Stafford and King George Counties ) suffered extensive record loss during the Civil War. Most early books of deed and will records are lost, as are most early court records. The majority of Hooper records are therefore missing.
Northern Neck ca1737 – Click to enlarge…
1696 & 1700
Tithables of Lancaster County: no Hoopers. Tithables of Christ Church parish and St. Mary’s White Chapel parish, on 14 January 1700/1, included Robert Carter but no Hoopers. [Willl Book 4, pp128 transcribed in Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine Vol. 16, No. 1 (Dec. 1966), pp1488.]
Lancaster County tithables presented at court each November or December [Lancaster County Order Book 5, pages 12, 55,108, 138, 163, 179, 204, 231, 255, 278.]
Robert Carter is listed in Christ Church parish each year with 100 to 110 unidentified tithables. James Innis is listed each year through 1705 usually with 4 tithables, after which he evidently moved into Richmond County. No Hoopers appear yet we know from the entries below that Thomas Hooper was there by 1705. I suspect that Thomas Hooper was among the unnamed tithables of Robert Carter.
There is reason to suspect that Thomas Hooper originated in England and came to Virginia as a clerk for the Fairfax land office, apparently replacing James Innis. There are no Hoopers among tithables, deeds or wills of Lancaster County until Thomas Hooper appears in the 1706 record below. However, the land office under Robert Carter was located at his plantation in Lancaster County so it’s likely that Thomas Hooper lived somewhere nearby, perhaps on a Carter property.
13 July 1705
Land grant: to William Combs of Richmond County, 100 acres in said county. At bottom of page: “This deed registered in page 103 dated July 13th 1705 & by mistake inserted here again. Tho. Hooper Clk. of ye Office” [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 3, p111.]
Hooper’s title was mis-transcribed in Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants, 1694-1742. Vol. I. The original reads “Office” rather than “Court”.
Robert Carter had been hired as Lord Fairfax’s land agent in Virginia in 1702. At some point prior to mid-1705 Carter must have hired Thomas Hooper as clerk in that office, which was located in Lancaster County. It is possible that Hooper was newly arrived in Virginia, perhaps hired in England. Carter was replaced in 1711 but was hired a second time in 1722. During both periods the land office was located at Carter’s plantation. in Lancaster County.
17 September 1705
Land grant: to Capt. William Jones of Northumberland County, 2,000 acres of excheated land in said county…(a duplicate entry) …at bottom of page: “This deed is recorded in page 160 & by mistake inserted here. Tho. Hooper Clk. of ye (Office?)” [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 3, p163.]
Note also that James Innis had apparently been clear of the Proprietor’s Office as late as December 1703.
11 September 1706
Deed: Robert Carter of Lancaster County to Thomas Hooper of the same County, for 190 pounds good sound merchantable tobo. each, four town lots in Queens Town: Lots 48, 49, and 50 being 1/2 acre each on the east southeast side or lower side of Prince Street (and being the first, second, and third lots from the main broad street called Anne Street) and Lot 53 being 1/2 acre & 18 perches on the northwest or upper side of Prince Street and bounded by Madam Balls Creek. Signed: Robert Carter. Witness: Wm. Fox, James Haines. Joseph Heale Sarshall Grasly. [Lancaster County Deed Book 9, pp169.]
Deed: Thomas Hooper to Robert Carter, the same four lots for the same consideration. Signed: Thomas Hooper. Witness: same four witnesses. [Lancaster County Deed Book 9, pp171.]
I’m not sure what the point of this was unless Carter, in his capacity as trustee of the town, could not transfer title directly to himself (or simply wished to avoid a record of it.) This was a technique Carter used to acquire land in the names of other people — he would grant lands to friends and cronies who then conveyed the property back to Carter. It does confirm, however, that Thomas Hooper was living in Lancaster County. (Note that these were feoffments, rather than L&Rs, a bit unusual for the Northern Neck.)
Thomas Hooper witnessed several other deeds by Carter for lots on the same day [pages 173, 174, 175, 177, etc.] I looked through the deed book for earlier deeds by Carter, did not see Thomas Hooper as a witness prior to 1706.
Robert “King” Carter (1663-1732) was on his way to becoming the richest man in Virginia. Born in Lancaster County and headquartered there, he held almost every important office in Virginia at one time or another including Speaker of the House of Burgesses, President of the Council, Treasurer, even acting as Governor. Notably, he served as the Fairfax’s land agent from 1702-1711 and again 1722-32.
18 October 1706
Deed: George Crosby of Northampton County to Tobias Purcell of Lancaster County, for £150 315½ acres in St. Stephens parish where Crosby lives adjacent land of Edward Sanders, Wm. Nutt, Christopher Newton and Geo. Nicholls – part of a patent to Richard Aylett of 22 April 1659 and by Aylett assigned to Daniel Crosby father of said George 30 July 1662. Witness: James Innis, Tho, Routt, Tho. Hooper. [Restatement of: Beverley Fleet, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Vol. 19, Northumbria Collectanea, page 30, abstracting Northumberland County Record Book 17, p192. Referenced also in Fleet, pages 81 and 92.]
Thomas Hooper and James Innis clearly knew one another. There is also reason to think that Hooper succeeded Innis as clerk in the Proprietor’s Office. (See the records for Innis.)
13 November 1706
Thos. Hooper witnessed two deeds by Robert Carter on this date for lots in Queens Town. [Lancaster County Deed Book 9, pages 194 and 199.]
He may have witnessed others, I just spotted these while scrolling through part of the file.
30 January 1707/8
Land grant: to George Glasscock of Richmond County for 44½ acres on Totosky Creek… at bottom of page: “This grant is not to goe out of ye office, Test: Tho. Hooper Clerk of ye Proprietor Office” [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 3, p183.]
I looked through a number of grants but could not find any additional records beyond these above three of Thomas Hooper as clerk of the Fairfax land office.
One can argue that Thomas Hooper was a relatively recent immigrant. My sense is that most men hired as clerks in Virginia circa 1700 were not native-born, other than those sent back to England for their educations, like Robert Carter and his brothers. I also note that such parish records as still exist in England commemorate the births of men named Thomas Hooper at the rate of nearly one per year from 1670 through 1690.
Land grant: to Thomas Hooper of Lancaster County, 1614 acres in Stafford County on the the south side of the main run of Patowmack Creek “…whereas Malachi Peale some time since of Stafford County obtained from out office our deed or grant bearing date ye fourth day of October 1694 for 1614 acres of land lying on ye branches of Potowmack Creek in ye sd. County…sometime in ye year 1698 never having paid any rent for ye sd land to our agents… and whereas ye sd. Malachi in his last will devised & bequeathed ye sd. 1614 acres of land unto Margery & Elizabeth Walker daughters of Mr. Endimion Walker of Exon in Devon in the Kingdom of England…” The Walkers failed to pay rent, the land escheated to the Proprietor, and in exchange for payment of rents in arrears is now granted to Thomas Hooper of Lancaster County… “Beginning at a white oak on ye top of a hill on ye south side of ye main Run of Patowmack Creek…” (metes and bounds follow) Day and month are omitted. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 3, p216.]
20 January 1708/9
Land Grant: to Thomas Hooper of Lancaster County, 489 acres. Similar to above: Malachi Beale was granted the land on 5 October 1694, failed to pay rent and devised the land in his will to John Pim, merchant of Exon in Devon in England, who failed to pay rents. The Proprietors now grant the land to Thomas Hooper of Lancaster County… “Beginning at a red oak being a corner tree between ye lands of Capt. Wm. Downing this land & a former tract of ye sd. Peale thence along ye back line of ye sd Downing… Day and month blank. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 3, p217.]
Although these two grants are blank as to day and month, the preceding grant is dated 20 January 1708 (O.S.) and the succeeding grant is dated 1 June 1709. The Library of Virginia assigned a date of 20 January 1708/9.
The land is apparently located near the early courthouse of Stafford County, and near the Rappahannock River, so it seems likely that Thomas Hooper moved onto some or all of this land sometime in the next ten years. Unlike his other grants, these would have been conveniently located for county business as well as for dealing with Robert Carter.
8 January 1708/9
Will: John Hart of Lancaster County. Wife Elizabeth. Sons John and Thomas. Daughters Elizabeth and Mary. Executors Robert Carter, son John, Daniel McCarty of Westmoreland County. Witness: Peter Wood, Hugh Coffie, Thomas Hooper. [Ida J. Lee, Abstracts of Lancaster County, Virginia Wills 1653-1800, p106, abstracting Lancaster County Will Book 10, p81.]
5 March 1708/9
Will: Benjamin Herne of Lancaster County. “…Item: I give to Thomas Hoopper (sic) all my books except four. Item I give to Walter Armes Junr. one Bible & Common prayer.book. Item I give to Miles Armes a book of the role of holy living and the holy duty of man.” Proved 13 April 1709. [Lancaster County Will Book 8, p138.]
25 December 1709
Will: I, James Innis of the County of Richmond in Virginia being sick of body but of sound memory do make this my last will and testament…. “I give to my daughter Sarah, all my land lying beyond the main run that runs up to Mr. Jacksons plantation being bounded by the said run the River and the land of Mr. Jackson & Coll. Carter to her and her heirs forever. Item: I give unto my said daughter Sarah the molatto child moll, one feather bed with its furniture and three cowes.” Item: I give unto my Daughter Elizabeth the land I took up lately on the fall run and to her heirs forever I give her also two cowes and 1,000 pounds tobacco. Item: I give unto my Daughter Hannah one cowe and 500 pounds of Tobacco. Item. I give unto my son Enoch the plantation where I now dwell with all the lands thereunto belonging beginning at the mouth of the run on the river side running up the said run to the fork then up the eastern branch of the said run through the plantation to the first little house, thence up the western branch of the said run in a direct line to the northwest corner of my land, being a red and a white oake, near a great Rock, to him and his heirs forever. Item. To my son James I give all the remainder of my land lying between the said eastern branch the main run and Mr. Jacksons land, to him and to his heirs forever. Item. My will is that the said land be rented out till he becomes to the age of eighteen years with conditions of planting orchards building and leaving it tenantable.
Item. My will is that all the rest of my estate be equally divided between my son Enoch and my son James and that if either of them dye before they come of age that the survivor have the whole unless they have children. Item. I appoint my daughter Sarah to execute this my last will and testament and do order and appoint her to set my servant Hugh Mateer free two years before his full time by the judgment of the Court be out. In witness whereof I have set my hand and seale to this my last will and testament. Signed: James Innis. Witness: John (his H sign) Hust, Jean (by squiggley sign) Hust, John (his B sign) Bartholomew Junr.
Added below signatures on same date: Item My will is that if either of my sons dye before he come of age and leave noe children then I give the land given to him to the survivor and his heirs forever, and if they should both dye before they come of age, or have children then I give all the said lands to my daughter Sarah and her heirs forever. Lastly I give my Gray horse to my wife. In witness whereof I have sett my hand and seale to this last clause of my will the 25th day of December, 1709. Signed: James Innis. Same witnesses.
Proved in Richmond County Court the 6th day of December, 1710 by Hust and Bartholomew. [Richmond County Wills & Inventories 1709-1717, pp31-32.]
Sarah Innis is evidently of age but already widowed.
Enoch Innis inherited from his brother James, who died without issue, and sold to plantation to Robert Carter in 1728.
— July 1710
Marriage License: “Thomas Hooper of Lancaster County & Sarah Price, widow…the above [list of marriage licenses dated by month and year] is a just & true account of what Marryage Lycenses have issued out of my Office since the 19th Day of Jany 1709… Given under my hand the Seventh Day of May 1716, Signed: Marmaduke Beckwith Cl. R. Cur.
[Richmond C county Deed Book 6, unpaginated but last page of book.]
Marmaduke Beckwith was clerk of the Richmond County court for forty years, from 1708 to 1748. Sarah Price was, from later records, the daughter of James Innis.
22 September 1710
Land Grant: Thomas Hooper of Lancaster County, 900 acres in Stafford County on north side of Occoquan between the two runs called and known by the names of Popes Head Run and Johny Mores Run. …Beginning at a marked whie oak standing on a hill side near ye Giants Castle branch it being a corner tree of a tract of land of John Waughs and extending thence N65E 76 poles to a Hickory standing in the head of a small branch yn. E 65 poles to a black oak yn S60E 100 poles to a Spanish oak standing on a ridge… Surveyed by Thomas Gregg. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 3, p267.]
James Hooper sold half of this patent in two transactions in 1745. This tract is located in what became Prince William County and then Fairfax County — Popes Head Run runs into Bull Run just southwest of Clifton, Virginia. Johnny Moore’s Creek runs into Bull Run just northwest of Clifton. See also the 24 September 1710 patent by David Waugh for 600 acres adjoining Hooper’s grant. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 3, p270.]
6 December 1710
Probate Awarded & Appraisal Ordered: Will of James Innis proved “and upon the motion of the Executrix therein named a Probate is granted her of the said will… Daniel Merritt, Thomas Walters, Thomas (Deckers?), John McNefee & Thomas Fitzhugh or any four of them being first sworn before a Justice of the Peace of this County, are appointed to appraise the Estate of James Innis deced., and make report thereof, to the next Court, when the Executrix is to produce the Inventory of the Estate and make Oath thereto. [Richmond County Order Book 5, p219.]
2 May 1711
Road Order: Ordered that Thomas Hooper officiate as the surveyor of the highways for the ensuing year between (Muddy?) Creek and the head of ye River. [Richmond County Order Book 5, p265.]
3 May 1711
Court Order: The order for appraisement of the estate of James Innis deced not being complied with, on motion made on behalf of the Executrix of the said deced. it is hereby continued and ordered that it be performed by (the same five names) [Richmond County Order Book 5, p274.]
4 July 1711
Court Order: Upon the motion of Katherine Innis, ordered that Thomas Hooper & Katherine (sic!) his wife Executrix of ames Innis deced. be summoned to (smudged — present the inventory and appraisal) [Richmond County Order Book 5, p301.]
2 August 1711
Court Order: Thomas Hooper being summoned to appear at this Court and return an inventory and appraisment of the estate of James Innis deced., and failing therein, it is ordered that the Sheriff of this County take the said Thomas Hooper into his custody… [Richmond County Order Book 5, p316.]
29 August 1711
Land Grants: William Page, 436 acres in Richmond County and William Bland et al, 354 acres in Stafford County, both surveyed by Thomas Hooper. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 4, p47 and p48.]
These two grants issued on the same day represent (I think) the earliest mention of Thomas Hooper as a surveyor. He surveyed several tracts in Richmond County, but would soon replace Thomas Gregg as surveyor in Stafford County.
4 January 1711/12
Thomas Hooper and Katherine (sic!) his wife Exec’x of James Innis dec’d being summoned to appear at this Court and show cause why did not returne an inventory and appraisment of the estate of said deced., Thomas Hooper appearing moved that persons more proper than those appointed for that purpose in the former order may now be appointed to appraise the estate in money, whereupon the Court do order and appoint Capt. Alex’r Doniphan, Wm. Thornton, Tho. Fitzhugh, Jonathan Gibson and James Strother, Gent., or any four of them… The said Alex’r Doniphan or such other Justice is also requested to administer an Oath to the said Thomas Hooper and Katherine (sic!) his wife for their true discovery of the Estate. [Richmond County Order Book 5, p331.]
Next Entry, Same Court: Daniell McCarty Attorney for and on behalfe of Robert Carter, Esq’r., produceing to this Court an account against the estate of James Innis, deced., for £82:10:9½ and 2,049 pounds of tobbo; and Thomas Hooper who intermarryed w’h the Exe. of the deced., appearing and acknowledging the same to be justly due, att motion of sd. Daniell McCarty, Judgment is granted to the said Robert Carter, Esq’r. against the Estate of James Innis in the hands of the said Thomas Hooper and Katherine (sic!) his wife, Executrix as aforesaid, for the said summes of £82:10:9½ and 2,049 pounds of tobbo; and costs [Richmond County Order Book 5, p332.]
Clerk again has substituted the widow’s name for the executrix’s.
26 February 1711/12
Inventory & Appraisal: of James Innis dec’d presented by Mr. Tho. Hooper and Sarah his wife and recorded 10 March 1711/12. [Richmond County Wills &Inventories 1709-1717, p63]
Not much of interest, no debts listed. Total value £183:7:6. At least the clerk got the name right.
26 April 1712
Grant to Augustine Smith. “Survey & plat for 854 acres of land of Augustine Smith in St. Anne’s Parish in Essex County on the Rappahannock River. The survey is signed by Thomas Hooper, Surveyor of Stafford County.” [Library of Virginia catalog entry, document itself in Special Collections was not viewed.]
Not clear to me if the document actually identifies him as surveyor of Stafford County or if that was an assumption by the compiler because he was later the surveyor of Stafford County.
13 June 1712
Land Grant: Thomas Hooper of Richmond County, 142 acres on north side of Rappahanock River “about two miles above ye fall thereof lying between ye lands of James Innis dec’d and ye said land of Robert Carter Esq. In ye County afores’d. …Beginning at a heap of stones standing on ye River bank on ye westward side fo ye Gravelly Run & in a piece of stoney low ground between two inward marked locust saplings being the upper corner of ye land of ye sd. Innis… (No warrant date or surveyor is noted in document.) [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 4, p90.]
He apparently sold this land sometime between 1714 and 1720. There are no deeds in Richmond County to or from Thomas Hooper — Deed Book 7, which covers that period, appears to be missing.
9 April 1713
Suit: Daniel Hooper, Esq. vs. John Pynes (Pines) — judgment for Hooper of £43-13-9 due by bill of exchange for £37-16 drawn on (Archer?) Bailey, Esq.
Who is this — the Daniel Hooper of the Norfolk area?
2 December 1714
Fine: At a court held for Richmond County this date “Thomas Hooper being returned upon the Pannell of the Grand Jury to attend this Court this day and not appearing when called is hereby fined two hundred pounds of tobacco” [Richmond County Criminal trials 1710-1754, p10.]
He moved upriver from Lancaster County to Richmond County, after marrying Sarah Innis. He shows up in Stafford County two months after this item, but whether he moved there at this time or not isn’t clear.
This was abstracted by Beverley Fleet in “Richmond County records 1704-1720”, Virginia Colonial Abstracts, Vol. 17, page 97.]
1 January 1714/15
Letter from Thomas Hooper of Stafford County to Robert Carter: “Worthy Sir — In obedience to Your Commands, Requiring me to give an Account of What Quantity of Land I think may be unpatented in the Bodys of Stafford and Richmond Countys…” [Read the entire letter at https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/C15a01a.mod.html]
Thomas Hooper was surveyor, and Carter was no longer the Fairfax land agent. It isn’t clear whether Hooper had been privately hired by Carter at this point.
22 January 1714/15
Land Grant: Innis Hooper, on his warrant of 4 September 1713 and surveyed by Thomas Hooper, 2,030 acres “on the branches of the Great Marsh Run issuing out of the north side of Rappa: River about thirty miles above the falls thereof in the County of Richmond, including the two lesser marshes commonly known by the names of the Elk Marsh and th eNo. or Upper marsh…” adjoining lands “lately surveyed” for William Russell and Jeffery Johnson. At bottom: “Composition refused and cancelled” [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 5, p61.]
Reissued to Capt. George Eskridge of Westmoreland County on 27 December 1717 it “being lapsed though (Hooper’s) noncompliance with the rules of the proprietor’s office”. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 5, p171.]
Innis is just an infant. Grants to children are unusual except among Robert Carter and his crowd. Robert Carter, during his first tenure as land agent, issued several land grants to his son Robert Carter Jr. beginning in 1707 and his son Charles Carter beginning in 1709 when they were only two or three years old. [Grants 3, p164 and p218 and numerous subsequent grants.] Thomas Hooper had two grants in the name of his son Innis Hooper but apparently not to his son Thomas Jr. If Thomas was the elder son, he would be his father’s natural heir, so it is possible that Thomas Hooper was establishing an inheritance for his second son Innis.
Thomas Hooper evidently didn’t pay the annual dues, which amounted to a bit more than £2 annually. The land is near Brent Town in what became Prince William County in 1731 and Fauquier County in 1759.
3 February 1714/15
Land Grant: Thomas Hooper, 355 acres in Stafford County “on the north side of the broad run of Occaquan river and adjoining to a tract of land lately surveyed for Clement Chevalle… beginning at a corner marked white oak standing on the north side of the said Broad run…” Warrant dated 30 November 1713. Surveyed by Thomas Hooper. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 5, p59.]
The land is in what became Prince William County in 1731. It appears to have been located just east of the northern part of Brent Town perhaps three miles from the grant of December 1715. It was sold by Thomas Hooper II in 1740.
3 December 1715
Land Grant: Thomas Hooper, 145 acres Stafford County on both sides of a small branch issuing out of Rappa: River below the Great Marsh Run and near the upper end of a tract of 2,020 acres belonging to Phillip Ludwell Esq… beginning at two marked red oaks standing on the side of a ridge on the easterly side of the sd. marsh run… Warrant dated 30 December 1714. Surveyed by Thomas Hooper. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 5, p109.]
This tract was sold 34 years later by Thomas Hooper II in 1751. It appears to have been in what became the upper corner of King George County that became Prince William County in 1731 and Fauquier County in 1759.
28 December 1715
Land Grant: Thomas Hooper of Stafford County, 157 acres in Stafford County formerly surveyed for (Geo.?) Fenn of Richmond County on 6 Dec 1715, on the south side of the Broad Run of Occoquan abt. 7 miles from the mouth of the sd. run and opposite to a tract of land lately surveyed for Mr. Nathaniel Harris… beginning at a corner marked Spanish oak standing on the south west side of the sd. Broad run… Survey shows an irregular shaped tract with considerable frontage on the creek.. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 5, p214.]
He kept this tract — it is described as adjacent to a 1731 grant to John Creel [Grants D, p5] This tract is in what became Prince William County in 1731 and is the very northernmost part of the Brent Town survey. I did not see a record of the sale of this tract.
4 March 1716/17
Land Grant: Thomas Hooper, 550 acres in two parcels in Stafford County on both sides of the bull run at the lower North run being the first great run issuing out of the north side of the Main run of Occaquan River… 284 acres being part thereof beginning at an corner marked white oak and red oak at the upper end of a piece of low ground on the north side of Bull run being the lower corner of a tract of 1160 acres granted to Peter Smith….. John Summerville’s line… land of Capt. John Waugh… And 266 acres the residue bounded as follows, beginning at a corner marked beech standing on the south side of Bull run about two mile from the mouth thereof and on the upper side of a small branch called the Fox branch… Warrant dated 26 September 1715. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. 5, p134.]
This is apparently in the northeastern part of what became Prince William County, perhaps not far from the county line with Fairfax. It isn’t clear when this was disposed of.
These grants are widely scattered. Where Thomas Hooper actually lived is unclear, but he surely lived much closer to the Rappahannock River and probably not far from the Stafford courthouse, which was located in the general vicinity of Potomac Creek at the time.
2 May 1719
The Governor in Council was pleased in Council to Nominat(sic) the following persons to be Sheriffs of the Several Countys for the ensuing year: … Stafford – Thomas Hooper… [H. R. McIlwaine, Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, Vol. 3, p510.]
Sheriff was a powerful and lucrative position in those days, as Sheriffs were due fees for collecting taxes and virtually every other of their duties. Robert Carter was a Council member.
4 May 1720
The Governor in Council was pleased to Nominate the following persons to be Sherifs(sic) of the several Countys for the ensuing year viz. … Stafford – Thomas Hooper… [H. R. McIlwaine, Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, Vol. 4, Preface page xl]
2 November 1720 – King George County formed from parts of Richmond and Westmoreland
22 June 1721
Letter from Robert Carter to John Johnson, his newly hired overseer, with instructions as he assumes his position. Since Johnson was illiterate, Carter writes that “Mr. Hooper will do You all the Service he can by writing or other ways.” [Read the entire letter here: https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/C21f22c.html]
Hooper has definitely been hired by Carter. Note that he also begins to be called “Captain” at about this time. Documents up to now refer to him as “Mr” Thomas Hooper but soon begin to call him “Capt” Thomas Hooper.
Robert Carter hired by Fairfax successors as land agent for the Proprietorship.
26 July 1722
Robert Carter’s Diary: …26th July brought 30 hogsheads Tobo from Captain Hooper [Read entry here: https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/CD1722.mod.html]
Robert Carter’s Diary Entries: 9th: “Kit came down brot me a Letter from Eaton from Hooper” 14th: I” agreed with Strother to be my general Overseer over my affairs at the falls write to Hooper Coppedge by him” 25th: “I wrote to Captain Hooper by (Capt. Eskridge) ” 27th: “I had Lettrs from Hooper Carter Johnson Dr Bell Meeks this morning” [Read the entire entries here https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/CD1723.mod.html]
6 July & 3 August 1722
Suits in King George brought by Thomas Hooper, Gent., against Catherine Elkins, Charles Webster, Nathaniel Elkins, Mathew Hubbard “by bill”. [King George County Couret Order Book 1721-1734, pp54, 61, 62.]
Now that Robert Carter is running the land office again, he has apparently employed Thomas Hooper to collect quit rents in arrears. These are probably Stafford County landowners residing in King George.
7/8 March 1722/3.
Lease & Release: Alexander Beach of Hanover Parish in King George County, planter, to Thomas Hooper of Overwharton Parish in Stafford County, Gent., for £40 , 400 acres in Overwharton Parish, Stafford County, formerly granted unto Peter Beach by deed from the Proprietors Office bearing date the 18th day of December 1694 and now belonging unto the said Alexancder Beach as son and heir at law to the said Peter Beach containing by estimation 400 acres… Beginning at a black oake corner tree of Colonell Allerson and running along the said Allerton’s line line South West 367 poles to a hickory another corner tree of the said Allerton thence SSE 199 poles to a corner tree thence NE 364 poles to another corner tree of the said Allerton thence NNW 199 poles to the beginning…. Signed: Alexander (his mark) Beach. Witness” Geo. Mason, (John?) Mason, Henry (Wigincum?). Acknowledged by Alexander Beach in court on 14 August 1723. Elizabeth, wife of Alexander Beach, relinquishes dower. [Stafford County Deed Book 1722-1728, pp30-35]
This is the only surviving deed to or from Thomas Hooper in Stafford County, as deeds prior to 1722 are lost. This book’s index lists a 1727 deed from John Hooper to Augustine Washington in the index, but the deed is actually by John Hopper. The metes and bounds in the above deed are repeated from the original grant, which was to Peter “Baile” rather than “Beach” [Book 2, p102] No idea where this tract was located, grants to Allerton do not show matching metes and bounds.
Lease & Release was a form of conveyance that was popular in England because it did not require registration, thus allowing the transaction to remain entirely private. In Virginia, all land conveyances were recorded, making that distinction moot. In Virginia all three forms of land conveyance (L&R, Feoffment, and Bargain & Sale) were equivalent. County clerks in the Northern Neck were particularly enamored of the Lease & Release form, which required two agreements: A bargain and sale conveyed a lease, giving the buyer a temporary interest, then a form of grant called a release conveyed a reversion of the seller’s interest (i.e., a quitclaim). The effect was to transfer title since the buyer then owned both the seller’s current and future interests. Awkward, but a form well known to clerks educated in England.
Quit Rent Roll for Stafford County 1723 returned by James Carter 18 July 1794:
Capt. Tho. Hooper 1060 (acres) 254 (lb. tobacco due in rent)
Idem in K. G. C. 1260 (acres) 304 (lb. tobacco due in rent)
[“Stafford County Rent Roll for the Year 1723”; Stafford County, Virginia, manuscripts in the Huntington Library, San Marino, California. 1 microfilm reel available at The Library of Virginia. Misc. Microfilm, Brock Collection, Accession 41008, Misc. Reel 4623, BR 297 Item ( 1 ). View online at https://www.pwcgov.org/government/dept/library/pages/relichistoricrepository.aspx]
We are missing all deeds in Stafford County prior to 1722. What we know is that Thomas Hooper had acquired 4,752 acres by grant and deed — I think 2,503 in Stafford and 2,249 in King George. While he sold much of that, he must have owned a lot of land at his death that we can’t account for — but worth checking again.
George Rust is not on this list, not having arrived in the area yet.
3 July 1723
Letter from Robert Carter to Capt. Thomas Hooper: Synopsis: ….chastising him for disputing an Assembly election in that county that has damaged Hooper’s reputation. He then chides Hooper for failing to carry out surveys of lands in Stafford on Carter’s behalf, especially of a tract between Carter and Mann Page. Carter’s sloop is coming to Hooper’s areas to pick up tobacco, and Carter hopes that James Carter has finished collections of quit rents so that they can be sent. George Mason and Carter have settled accounts of quit rents but Henry Fitshugh has not. He urges Hooper to write at length of their business affairs and send the letter by the sloop. Carter closes with a note that he has not heard of any progress regarding the Brenton grant, and by urging Hooper to assist James Carter in rapidly dispatching the sloop. [ReEad the entire letter here: https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/C23g03c.html]
24 August 1723
Letter from Robert Carter to Captain Thomas Hooper: “…I have bin told from those that are
none of Yor. Enemys, that a Cagg of good Liqr. is a Sheet Anchor that You Can not get clear from, till tis run out, & indeed tis apparent from Yor. proceed[ing]s in my businss, tht. to much of Yr. time goes that way, to Mention no othr. tis wonderfull tht. in all thse. Sumr. mos., You Shd. not have found the leizure to have prepar’d for me Platts for the Tract of Land between Collo. Page & I… You say You are in an Ill State of health wch. most an End proves to be the fate of the Intemper[a] te. laizy man, he tht. Spends his Youth in Luxury is laying in fuel for a Craizy old age but Its genly. his doom never to come to It… (complaining about the vestry clerk’s high fees he writes) as Yor. Friend I heartily wish Yor. fingr. had not bin So much in the Pye… I once more Importune You to revive Yor. spirit & to be more Vigorous in my business tht. lyes undr. Yor. care wch. both Yor. self profit & Credt. is so much concernd in I’m in great haste at Present. [Read the entire letter here: https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/C23h24a.html]
Well now.. Carter is complaining about his friend Hooper’s performance, rent collections, excessive fees, and apparent alcoholism. This is worth reading in its entirety.
12 December 1723
Final survey made by Thomas Hooper. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. A, p52.]
28 December 1723
Letter from Robert Carter to Capt. Charles Broadwater: “…you must thank Hooper for had he given me an early account of Your Entry as he has oportunities every week at least…” [Read the entire letter here: https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/C23l28a.mod.html
8 February 1724
Land Grant: Innis Hooper, 783 acres and 156 perches beginning by Brent Town Run, adjoining John. Johnson… Beginning at a small white oak between a red oak and a hickory by Brent Town Run extending thence S70W 140 poles to a red oak sapling in the angel(sic) of two white oaks and a red oak, thence S80W 114 poles to a red oak in the angle of four red oak saplings, thence North 106 poles to a red oak in the angle of three white oaks thence N80E 65 poles to a hickory in a line of marked trees belonging to John Johnson thence along Johnsons line N20W 360 poles to Johnsons corner in a branch of Elk Run thence N20E 168 poles to a Spa. Oak in a savannah thence N50E 52 poles to a large white oak thence S57E 84 poles to a red oak on the bank of Elk Run thence up Elk Run S10W 48 poles, S10E 30 poles, S25E 36 poles to a large white oak by the fork of Town Run thence up Town Run the courses and meanders thereof being reduced to a single course is S17E 434 poles to the first station. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. A, p122.]
Innis Hooper is clearly still a minor ten years after the first grant to him. Robert Carter was again the Fairfax agent after a lapse of several years, so was essentially unrestricted in issuing grants.
This tract is about three miles into what would later be Fauquier County and borders the Brent Town tract. By the 1737 survey made for Brent Town, this tract was being referred to as Thomas Hooper’s, so Innis evidently died sometime in the 1720s or early 1730s. Thomas Hooper later sold the tract, evidently having inherited as Innis Hooper’s eldest brother.
6 April 1724
Letter from Robert Carter to John Chelton: (regarding land in the vicinity of Bull Rull in Stafford County) “ ..I have Since given Mr Savage the present Surveyor Directions to lay off the best of these lands for me…” [Read the full letter at https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/C24d06a.mod.html]
Thomas Hooper has already been replaced as surveyor.
23 May 1724
Robert Carter Diary: “May 23 Mr. Hooper went away. Mr Barber went away….I gave Enoch Innis a Pistol mrs Hooper 10 bitts for her ferriage — [Read the diary here: https://christchurch1735.org/robert-king-carter-papers/html/CD1724.html]
“Went away” is not a euphemism — it was one of Carter’s favorite phrases and frequently applied to living people — so Thomas Hooper is still alive in late May and able to travel. I wonder why Mrs. Hooper needed to be given a fee for the ferry. Were she and Thomas traveling separately on this day?
Thomas Hooper must have died in late May or in June 1624. He was alive on 23 May but by the grant of 4 July he was referred to as deceased.
23 June 1724
Land Grant: Rev. Alexander Scott, clerk of Stafford County, 200 acres in Stafford County “…having returned a survey therof under the hands of Capt. Thomas Hooper late Surveyor” [Northern Neck Grants Vol. A, p37.]
4 July 1724
Land Grant: William Champ, 288 acres in Stafford County “…having returned a survey thereof under the hands of Capt. Thomas Hooper Dec’d late Surveyor.” [Northern Neck Grants Vol. A, p42.]
These are the earliest of a dozen-odd grants issues in 1724 that refer to Capt. Thomas Hooper as deceased. [Vol Q, pp 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 61, 63] A few grants, like Scott’s, merely call him the “late Surveyor” but several, like Champ’s, specifically refer to him as deceased. The latest date of his survey’s, as above, is 12 December 1723.
Thomas Hooper was alive on 23 May 1724 but is deceased by 4 July — a six-week window in which he must have died.
1 February 1726/7 — Prince William County formed from western parts of Stafford and King George. Most of the Hooper grants fell into fell into Prince William.
7 October 1727
Deed: Richard Partridge and Jane his wife and Edmund English and Sarah his wife [both being daughters of Charles Ashton] to Ashton Lamkin, 100 acres on south side of [Occoquan] Creek… Witness: Enoch Innis, George Rust, Charles Brent. [Stafford County Deed Book 1722-1728, pages 488-490. From the files of Anne Goodwin.]
This suggests that George Rust was already married to Sarah Innis Hooper, or at least was reasonably intimate with her family. Enoch Innis was Sarah’s brother and Harriet, wife of George Brent, was Sarah’s sister.
6 March 1729/30
Estate Accounts: including an accounting of estate of Rynhard De la Fayolle by Alexander Scott, one of the executors, that was “exhibited approved of and agreed upon by Col. George Mason and Capt. Thomas Hooper persons mutually chosen to settle the above account who having satisfied themselves as to the truth and proof of such (estate?) consented to the above agreement March 16th 1724.” [Stafford County Will Book M, pp5-6.]
This is very faded but I think that final digit of the year is a 4. It is referring to an appraisal or account dated in 1723.
Note that the Hooper family was apparently living on land in the general vicinity of Potomac Creek because they were not in Prince William County and were apparently reasonably close to the river.
4 September 1730
Lease & Release: George Rust of Overwharton Parish of Stafford County, Gent. and Sarah his wife, and Enoch Innis of the same Parish and County, Gent., for £80 sterling, 275 acres in Hanover Parish of King George County & being part of a larger tract of 975 acres formerly granted to Mr. James Innis… “whereas James Innis late of the County of King George dec’d Father of the said Sarah (party to these presents) did on the first day of June 1704 obtain a Patent for 975 acres of land situate lying & being in the parish of Hanover in the said County of King George lying upon a Brook or run known by name of great gravelly run falling into Rappannock River about two miles above the falls… (metes and bounds)… and whereas the said James Innis by his Last Will & Testament bearing date the 25th December Anno Dom 1709 did (interalia) devise & bequeath to his said Daughter Sarah & to her heirs forever all that parcel of the aforesaid tract or parcel of land lying beyond the main run which runs up to Mr. Jackson’s Plantation…” Signed: George Rust, Sarah Rust. Witness: James Markham, Charles Seale, James Champe. Proved same day by George and Sarah Rust, “…Sarah being solely examined confessed her free consent thereto.” [King George Deed Book 1A, pp74-77.]
This is the land inherited by Sarah, which she kept for twenty years. Sarah must have been at least ten years older than her husband — she was apparently of age by 1709. George Rust was no older than 30 at this time and had only been in Stafford County for a few years. His father’s will, dated 16 August 1715, includes a legacy to his son George “when he shall arrive to the age of seventeen years”. [Westmoreland County Deeds & Will Book 6, p254.] A published Rust genealogy estimates his birth at 1700-1705 [Ellsworth Marshall Rust, Rust of Virginia (Waverly Press, Inc. Washington, 1940), p52.] and suggests that he had as many as four children by Sarah.
Note that the land, originally in Richmond County, is now in King George County. The Rusts are living in Stafford County, perhaps on the Thomas Hooper plantation.
14 July 1731
Supplemental Inventory: A true and perfect inventory & sale of the estate of Thomas Hooper dec’d as was either sold or made use of by Sarah Hooper his Exe’x before the appraisement of the sd. estate.
These goods sold at the following prices Vizt.: (prices omitted below) 1 ½ yards fine waits linen, 1 ps. of gartering, 2 ½ m. pins, 3 ½ bushel salt. 1 silk handkerchief, 2 _____ bonnets, 5 broad hoes, 1 pair worsted stockings, 32 ½ yards bed tick, 7 yards Damask, 1 cow, 3 culling hoes, 1 ½ yards striped (Tuken?), 2 1/4yards blew holland, __ coulor’d thread, 1 pair woud shoes, 2 yards fine check linen, 2 ½ doz. ___ buttons, 5 yards Cantaloons, 175 feet of plank, 4 ½ yards silk poplin, 2 yards blue & white striped cotton, 1 gold (laved?) hat
These goods made use of in the family: a suit of black (mill’d?) crepe for myself, a suit of black druggett for Innis Hooper, a coat & britches of black (___?) crepe for Tho. Hooper, 12 yards of black shalloons, 3 yards of black damask, 3 ½ yards of black druggett, 2 yards coarse black stuff, 2 pairs black stockings, 1 pair boys shoes…(several similar items follow, not copied)
Things which never were appraised: 1 two gallon iron pot, 1 old nine ___ plat very old & rotten, 1 old boat about fifteen feet long, 1 broken case of bottles, 1 chest of drawers, 1 old chest, 3 old guns, 2 pair stilliards, 1 horse called (Knee?), 2 barren cows, 1 bay horse called Button.
At a court held on Wednesday the 14th of July 1731 Sarah Rust returned & made oath to this supplemental inventory of the estate of Thomas Hooper dec’d her late husband.
[Stafford County Will Book M, p42-3.]
Note that his wife is referred to as “Executrix”, meaning that Thomas Hooper left a will. But no will is recorded in Will Book M, which contains wills and related records beginning in July 1730. His will must have been recorded in a preceding Will Book which is lost.
Somewhat odd that only two children are mentioned in this record. No female children are evident from these records either. Also note that typical farm and household goods are missing from both inventories — as are household items, crops, surveyor’s tools and similar items of personal property that we’d expect to see listed.
14 July 1731
Inventory: The estate of Capt. Thomas Hooper (Lengthy list of debits and credits, including:) …to paid quitrents of 2320 acres of land for the year 1723… to paid John Grant for schooling Innes Hooper… to paid Richard Thomas for boarding Innes Hooper… At a court held for Stafford County on Wednesday the 14th of July 1731 Sarah Rust Exec’x of Thomas Hooper dec’d exhibited the inventory… [Stafford County Will Book M, p44-47.]
This record is very faded, seems to include an usually large proportion of debits. See the rent roll for 1723 above for the 2,320 acres Thomas Hooper was charged for but evidently did not live long enough to pay. Also note no entry for rents in 1724 or later years, which would be accounted for in an estate accounting — that doesn’t exist. Also note that we don’t have nearly enough extant deeds to account for the disposition of that quantity of land thanks to the loss of Stafford County deed books.
24 August 1731
Land Grant: John Creel, 870 acres on the Broad run of Occoquon adjoining the lower part of Capt. Hooper’s land and the land of Charles Burges. [Northern Neck Grants Vol. D, p5]
This adjoins Hooper’s land at the northern edge of what would become Brent Town. In the 1737 survey, Hooper’s land was referred to as Thomas Hooper’s, meaning the son.
26 August 1731
Land Grant: James Thomas, 1504 acres on Johnny More & Little Rocky runs, adjacent “Thomas Hooper deceased.” [Northern Neck Grants Vol. D, p8.]
This is adjacent to the 22 September 1710 grant. James Hooper sells half of this a few years later.
19 /20 April 1732
Lease & Release: George Rust, of Prince William County, Gent., to William Eustace of County of Northumberland Gent….for £40 sterling… 338 acres… in Prince William County formerly called Richmond County…. formerly granted to Thomas Evans by deed from Proprietors Office bearing date 28 July 1715 which after the death of the sd. Thomas Evans devolv’d to George Evans is(sic) lawfful son and by him the sd. George Evans sold to George Rust by deed dated 23 February 1727/8… (metes and bounds do not mention neighbors) Signed: George Rust Witness: Will’m Harrison, Tho’s. Whitledge. At a court 19 April 1732 George Rust acknowledged this release to William Eustace and Sarah wife of the said George in open court relinquished her right of Dower to the land therein mentioned. [Prince William County Deed Book A, pp198.]
11 October 1733
…We Peter Hedgman, William Brent & John Grant bond for £300… The condition of the above obligation is such that the above bound Peter Hedgman, guardian of Thomas Hooper… will pay or cause to be well & truly paid unto the said orphan all (such?) Estate & Estates as now is or hereafter shall come to hands of said Hedgman as soon as the said Orphan shall attain to lawful age or when hereunto required by the Justices of the Peace of Stafford County Court .. as also to save & keep (unreadable word) the said Justices their heirs & successors (unreadable phrase) someday arise about the said estate.. then this obligation to be void or else in full force. Recorded 11 October 1733 [Stafford County Will Book M, p127.]
Justices were personally liable for the preservation of personal estates, so bonds were required in amounts large enough to both protect the child’s inheritance and shield the justices themselves from future claims. There does not seem to be a guardian bond for any other children — while they may be among the lost records, it may also be that Thomas was bequeathed the bulk of the personal estate. Also note that £300 suggests a modest estate — Thomas Jr. inherited large swaths of land but not a large personal estate.
There do not seem to be any extant guardian bonds for other Hoopers in Will Book M. That suggests the possibility that Thomas Hooper’s will did not leave a large enough estate outright to his other children to warrant a guardian bond. It is probable that Thomas was the eldest son.